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Research News from Members

Graphene-based Plasmonic Device As an X-ray Free-electron Laser

April 19, 2021.

The development of free-electron-based light sources has long been a subject of widespread interest owing to the fact that the wavelength of generated light can be tuned continuously from the long-wavelength range (microwaves and infrared) to the visible range and all the way to the short-wavelength range (ultraviolet and X-rays). However, the disadvantage of such a light source is its large size and high cost. ... Read more

Theoretical Investigation of Color Alterations in Ruby and Spinel due to Nitrogen and Oxygen Ion Bombardment

December 9, 2020.

Thailand has enjoyed a unique position as the world’s major ruby export and ruby enhancement hub. Revenue from gemology industry has continued to grow albeit a general decline in economy. Currently it is second only to the automobile industry in terms of GDP. Thai rubies, also known as “Tubtim Siam,” are known for their vibrant blood-red color and are the benchmark of high-quality rubies. ... Read more

The Study of Graphene Sheet Photoconductivity and Surface Plasmons for Terahertz Emission

December 9, 2020.

Graphene is known to the scientists as the one-atom-thick material, the thinnest exotic material ever found! It composes of a hexagonal lattice of carbon atoms expanding in a two-dimensional plane. ... Read more

Optical Atomic Clock as Thailand's Frequency Standard

September 1, 2020.

Back in the old days, humans used simple observations of natural phenomena to tell time. For example, the movement of the Sun is used to tell the time in the day, and the positions of constellations are used to time the time in the year. It did not take to long for us to realize that those methods are probably not very accurate. ... Read more

Terahertz/Mid-infrared Free-electron Laser Based on Linear Accelerator

September 1, 2020.

Nowadays, infrared radiation is widely used in many fields such as chemistry, biology, materials science, agriculture, food industry and medical applications. The infrared radiation can be categorized into 3 frequency regimes: near infrared (NIR), mid infrared (MIR) and far infrared (FIR). The most popular regimes for applications are the MIR radiation with wavelengths of 2 – 30 micron and the FIR radiation including terahertz (THz) radiation with wavelengths of 0.03 - 3 mm. ... Read more

The application of nuclear and particle physics knowledge in the development of sensor technology for cancer treatment using hadrons

July 30, 2020.

Cancer is abnormal cells that grow and kill the healthy cells inside our bodies. Cancer cells are very aggressive and difficult to treat, that is why it is the leading cause of death in Thailand and the world. There are several methods to treat cancer patients. Surgery is a primary method to cure cancer patients by removing the cancer cells from the infected tissue to prevent further progression. Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment using an anti-cancer drug to treat and kill cancer cells. Besides killing the specific cancer cells, the chemotherapy drug could also affect the normal cells ... Read more

Anti-oxidation properties of Nitride Hard Coating

July 30, 2020.

For many decades, the materials, devices, or work pieces’ coatings have been interesting and favorite. The objective of coatings was to increase the tribology properties of the substrate’s surface. The coating will perform as the protective layer of the material or work piece substrate, resulting in research and development of the coating layer and methods for fabricating various types of coating to be applied in the industry. ... Read more

An integrated geophysical investigation for Thailand active faults

July 1, 2020.

Earthquake is natural phenomena which cause of loss in life and properties. Although compared to the other country, Thailand has less seismicity and risk from earthquakes. It cannot be reassured because the fundamental knowledge of active faults in our country is still insufficient. ... Read more

Development of Thin Film Thermoelectric Cooler for Vehicle Air Conditioning

July 1, 2020.

Today, an automobile is a necessity for everyone. For a long or short journey, people need car regard to the safety, environment and most important comfort. Many vehicles are equipped with heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. ... Read more

Biosensors and Chemical Sensors for Health Monitoring in the Elderly

May 22, 2020.

Thailand is entering aging society with increasing population older than 60 while the number of working populations is decreasing. This poses an eminent challenge on the development of the country and the well-being of the Thai citizens. ... Read more

Study on Particle Physics and High Energy Physics with Belle II Detector

May 22, 2020.

The research at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) focuses on flavor physics and CP violation measurements which will provide an importance test of the standard model and new physics. ... Read more

Development of Protein and DNA Microarray for Medical Diagnostic

May 1, 2020.

Protein and DNA microarray are technologies that prepare probe molecules or captured molecules that will bind with its molecular partner, such as the antibody of the bacteria or the complimentary DNA. ... Read more

Superhard Amorphous Carbon Coating

May 1, 2020.

Hard coating has been used in many applications, for example, cutting and machining tools, molds, dies, hard disk and other wear-resistant applications. Hardness is an important properties of a material which determines its ability to resist wear when subjected to frictional forces. ... Read more

Energy Materials Development using Extreme Conditions

March 9, 2020.

Extreme condition research has played an important role in material sciences and geophysical research for more than three decades. However, it was not until very recently that the high pressure techniques have been used to explore the new properties of existing materials. Quenching technique is now available in several materials fabrication process where the starting raw materials have been put under high pressure after a certain period of time to undergo the structural phase transition and after taken down to ambient pressure the modified properties remain unchanged. ... Read more

Perovskite solar cells and the enhancement of the perovskite solar cell stability

March 2, 2020.

Thailand has moved into the fully industrial country, thus, the need of the electrical power is much higher than the past years. The development of the renewable energy resources is a very important path for reducing the future energy requirement. ... Read more

Efficiency Enhancement of CIGS Solar Cells by Perovskite-CIGS Tandem Structure

January 31, 2020.

The origin of solar cell was dated back to around 1839 when the French physicist Alexandre Edmond Becquerel first experimentally demonstrated the photovoltaic effect in an electrode in conductive solution exposed to light. Around 50 years later, in 1883, Charles Fritts – an American inventor developed a solar cell using selenium on a thin layer of gold to form a device giving less than 1% power conversion efficiency (PCE). ... Read more

Defects in metal oxides

January 31, 2020.

Metal oxides are materials of great technological interest due to their rich properties, including optoelectronics, ferroelectricity, photovoltaic and photocatalysis. Some metal oxides including zinc oxide (ZnO), tin dioxide (SnO2) and indium oxide (In2O3) exhibit high optical transparency with high electrical conductivity. These unique properties allow them to be used as transparent electrodes in flat panel displays, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, as transparent heat-mirror coating and as transparent coating for antifogging and self-cleaning windows. ... Read more

Advances in cancer cell-based liquid biopsy – Getting them all out

December 27, 2019.

Cell-based liquid biopsy has, as we see it, great potential to improve current diagnostics, but also to evolve and replace diagnostic procedures in many diseases and otherwise relevant health conditions with respect to early phase detection, prevention or monitoring disease evolution. ... Read more

Cold Rubidium Atoms Gravimeter

December 27, 2019.

There are two main energy sources which mobilize our world, solar energy and fossil fuel. The solar energy mostly has an influence on earth’s ecosystem as energy source for plants, agriculture and food production. ... Read more

Theoretical Studies of Rydberg Atoms, Interaction with Ground-state Atoms and Interference in External Fields

November 29, 2019.

The figure above shows the latest version of Siam Quantum [1] program that users from around the world can freely download. The program clearly demonstrates the academic capabilities of Thai scientists in terms of software and theoretical developments. Siam Quantum is the only quantum chemistry program that is available in Southeast Asia. ... Read more

Efficient and Cost-Effective Perovskite Solar Cells as Alternatives to Si Solar Cells

November 5, 2019.

Solar energy is an important energy because it provides a clean energy with infinite amount. Solar cells are devices provide electrical energy converting from solar energy. There are many types of solar cells such as silicon solar cells, thin film solar cells, quantum dot solar cells (QD), organic photovoltaic (OPV) and emerging solar cells etc. ... Read more

Scanning Probe Microscopy for Near-field Optics Research

November 5, 2019.

The resolution of far-field imaging system is limited by the diffraction of light. The diffraction-limited resolution, firstly studied by Ernst Abbe [1] and Lord Rayleigh [2,3], can be quantitatively described by the shortest resolvable distance between two points, r, which is given by ... Read more

The Fundamental Mechanism Study of IR and THz Nanostructure Lasers for National Security Application

October 1, 2019.

Since in the recent years the threat from terrorism in Thailand have been increasing, especially, in the southern area of Thailand. That threat for example: bombs, explosions hidden in the vehicle, explosive substance etc. harmed the lives of officers operating at that area and also local people. The most important cause of these losses is the lack of detection technology at the distance. ... Read more

Molecular Mechanism of Forkhead Box M1 Inhibition by Thiostrepton in Breast Cancer Cells

October 1, 2019.

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women around the world. In 2012, there are 240,000 new cases of breast cancer and around 110,000 deaths in Southeast Asian, reported by World Health Organization: WHO [1]. According to the hospital based cancer registry of Thailand, the number of new patients with breast cancer is around 926 in 2018, and it is higher than it was in 2000 by 17%. ... Read more

Exploration of Novel Quantum States in Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides and Oxides for New-Generation-Electronics Development

September 3, 2019.

After graphene was discovered in 2005 [1], there has been a number of studies on layered compounds, two-dimensional materials and other graphene-related materials, searching for new applications beyond the conventional ones. Theses materials possess unique quantum properties such as topological states and spin-valley coupling which can not be observed in bulk materials. ... Read more

Development of Plasma Pyrolysis-Gasification for Disposal of Medical Waste

September 2, 2019.

“Nakhon Si Thammarat people are frightened, someone illegally discarded infected waste” was the headline of the Daily News newspaper on May 4, 2015 [1]. It reflects the serious problems of Thai society in the incorrectl disposal of infectious waste. Due to many limitations such as hospital liability weakness of law enforcement, lack of awareness of social problems, not enough waste incinerator and lacking appropriate technology, etc. Infected waste is waste generated from hospitals and health science research centers. Currently, Thailand has a hospital which consists of hospitals, public health center, community health centers, both public and private clinics. ... Read more

Fabricating P-Type Semiconductors for Perovskite Solar Cell Application

July 23, 2019.

Hybrid inorganic-organic (MAPbI3) or pure inorganic (CsSnI3 or CsPbI3) are intensively used for fabricating the perovskite solar cell because of its high efficiency and simple fabrication process. In this work, we are interested on using inorganic CsSnxPb1-xI3 films as the p-type transporting layer in the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (S-DSSCs). This is because the inorganic CsSnxPb1-xI3 perovskite film is the non-volatile and has the simple preparing process. Interesting, the efficiency of CsSnI3 based S-DSSCs has been reported to be very high of ~10.2% [1]. ... Read more

Near-field Talbot-Lau Atom Interferometer

July 22, 2019.

Matter-wave interferometry can be applied for precision metrology with atoms and small molecules, in particular for the measurements of all kinds of inertial forces for instance the variations of the rotation of the Earth, local gravity acceleration (g) as well as gravity gradients. In additions, the measurement of internal property of atoms and molecules such as polarizability provides several advantages in atomic physics and chemistry. ... Read more

Econophysics of Labor Migration

May 16, 2019.

From the world’s rapid urbanization, people tend to migrate from rural areas (focusing on agricultural economy) to the urban areas (emphasizing on industrial economy) over the last few decades (e.g. see Figures 1 and 2). According to statistical data, the population of large cities around the world has increased considerably. In 2018, the UN stated that 55% of the world's population lives in various metropolitan areas, and this figure will increase to 68% within the next 30 years [1]. Typically, the highly populated urban area often encounters various economic and social problems. ... Read more

Rice Breeding for Rice Farmers of Thailand 4.0

January 2, 2019.

Aboriginal people in Southeast Asia have been cultivating rice as staple food for more than 5,000 years since the prehistoric period. The evidence of rice cultivation was found in the excavation of Ban Chiang civilization in Udon Thani Province. Thailand has thousands of native rice varieties [1] and Thai people have high skill in rice planting. It is not uncommon for Thailand to be in the top three of the rice exporters of the world's rice market. ... Read more

First Year Progress of Industrial Magnetic Cooling Research Program

June 25, 2018.

The electricity usage for refrigeration systems is accounted for more than 50 – 60 % of the country’s total electrical energy consumption. Based on 2017 data as shown in Figure 1, the total domestic electricity usage is as high as 185,370 million unit per year. With the cost of electricity production at 2 – 5 baht/unit, the cost of electricity usage for refrigeration systems in Thailand is higher than 200 billion baths per year ... Read more

Progress Report of Sustainable Physics Education Reform

March 8, 2018.

Sustainable Physics Education Reform program has been started on October 1, 2016 and continued until September 30, 2019. The main goal is to conduct physics education research so that there is a reform in physics teaching and learning in Thailand. The program focuses on conducting basic research studies on physics understanding of students in pre-college up to undergraduate levels. Research findings are used to develop instructional materials for active learning approach in physics suitable for Thai students. Moreover, the program publishes research studies and trains more physics education researchers. Over the past two years, the progresses of this program are as follows. ... Read more

Bacteria Development for Expenditure Reduction of Farmers regarding Beef Cattle Forages and Plant Fertilizers

October 16, 2017.

Over the first 11 months of all 36 months, the subprojects 1 and 2 of the Research Project on “Innovative Physics Using Ion/ Plasma for Modified Forage Plants/ Bacteria to Enhance Dairy and Beef Cattle Productivity” under the Research Program in “Innovative Physics for Enhancing Value of Agriculture Products” have been in progress in accordance with the specified operation plans. All of these can be summarized below. ... Read more

A Model Demonstration of nanomaterial Toxicity: Nanomaterials Directly Change DNA and Induce Mutation

September 5, 2016.

With rapid and significant development, progress and profit achieved in nanomaterials and nanotechnology, nanotoxicity has been put in the research agenda and a new subject termed nanotoxicology has emerged. ... Read more

The Past, Present & Future of QAO lab

February 15, 2016.

In the field of atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) science, lasers are used as a tool for regulatively manipulating the quantum states and for coherently controlling the interactions among quantum objects. ... Read more

Cosmology at IF funded by ThEP Center

October 20, 2015.

Present well-accepted standard cosmological model is the CDM which gives inflation, the super-fast early-universe acceleration. Scalar field causing inflation is dubbed inflaton. ... Read more

In-situ XAS and In-situ XRD Studies of Nanomaterials for Li-ion Batteries

April 17, 2015.

Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are amongst the most advanced electrical energy storage system available today. High energy lithium-ion batteries have improved performance in a wide variety of mobile electronic devices such as cell-phone and laptop computer. However, new fields of ... Read more

Identification of Defects in Metal Oxides

January 20, 2015.

The synchrotron x-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) technique was used in conjunction with first-principles calculations to characterize Al-doped ZnO films. Standard characterizations revealed that the amount of carrier concentration and mobility depend on the growth conditions ... Read more

Preparation of Titanium Dioxide for Medical Applications

March 12, 2014.

Bone damage is a serious health condition that has a direct impact on the quality of life of sufferers. In recent years, metals and alloys are widely used for restoration of bone damage. However, the degradation of most metals implanted in human body has narrowed the choice of clinically usable metals and alloys to mainly stainless steel, cobalt-chromium and titanium and its alloys. Among all the metallic materials, the austenitic stainless steels type 316L (316L-SS) are the most popular materials because of their relatively low cost, ease of fabrication and reasonable corrosion resistance. However, clinical experience has shown that they are susceptible to localized attack in long-term application in the human body causing the release of metal ions, i.e., iron, chromium, nickel and molybdenum. Metal ions can be accumulated in the tissues surrounding the implant or be transported to distant parts of the body. It has been demonstrated that metallic ions resulting from an in vitro corrosion of austenitic stainless steels cause alteration of the expression of human lymphocyte-surface antigens and inhibit the immune response as assessed by lymphocyte proliferation. ... Read more

Low Cost Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

January 27, 2014.

In the field of analytical chemistry, one of the most popular and straight forward techniques is the separation analysis. The good example is chromatagraphy, which is the well-known technique conventionally used by chemists and biologists. There is the technique, however, to be used in the separation of chemical analytes benefiting the influence of an external electric field. This technique is called Capillary Electrophoresis (CE). The sub-technique of CE namely Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE) is the focus of our study. Normally, the separation is performed in a 50-100 cm long glass capillary of average internal diameter ranging from 30-100 microns. Therefore, it requires quite high separation voltage and long operation period. On the top of that, the system is larger when it is integrated with the detector, which is usually a light detector (UV absorption or emission). Such a system has to be placed in a laboratory only. Thus, the Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis (MCE) technique, which is the operation of CE on a microfluidic chip, has been proposed. The main advantages of MCE are its portability and high integrability. Low cost and low chemical consumption are also considered in poor countries. ... Read more

Silicon oxide film for biomaterials using PECVD process

December 23, 2013.

In recent years, there is a growing interest in developing silicon oxide films for use in biomedical applications such as bioelectronics, and biomaterials [1-5]. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is widely used to deposit silicon oxide films on polymeric biomaterials because it can adjust the mechanical properties with the deposition parameters [6]. Post-deposition oxygen (O2) plasma was used to adapt wettability of SiOx films because O2 plasma enhanced higher O2-containing functionalities and more drastic morphology change. These would be beneficial to certain biomedicine application potentials such as polymeric cell-culture dishes and biosensors whose cell attachment and proliferation properties could be modified by depositing SiOx thin films. ... Read more

Influence of carbon nanotubes in gel electrolyte on photovoltaic performance of ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

October 22, 2013.

Our research group at the Applied Physics Research Laboratory, Chiang Mai University is actively involving to harvest maximum energy conversion efficiency of solar power into electricity of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For years now, DSSCs are considered to be one of the promising alternatives to the existing silicon based-solar cells due to ease of fabrication and low-cost fabrication [1]. Recently, DSSC-productions have been already commercialized for light generation purpose, but they have relatively low efficiency, in which the performance depends on both current and voltage of DSSCs. In this regard, the DSSC performance can be improved in an effective manner through an increase in photogenerated current and photovoltage by suppressing electron back transport. In this respect, it depends particularly on metal-oxide types to well-defined DSSC photoelectrodes. Due to our knowledge gained through zinc oxide (ZnO) materials [2-3], we are now interested in the efficiency improvement of DSSCs using ZnO as photoelectrode-based layers. ... Read more

Giant Ground Level Enhancement of Relativistic Solar Protons on 2005 January 20: Spaceship Earth Observations

September 19, 2013.

Approximately 15 times per 11-year solar cycle, the Sun emits cosmic rays with sufficient energy and intensity to raise radiation levels on Earth’s surface markedly above background levels due to Galactic cosmic rays. These events, termed “ground level enhancements” (GLEs), provide an exceptionally clear picture of particle acceleration on the Sun, first because GLE particles travel near the speed of light and thus enable a precise linkage between the particles and the solar source event, and second because they have large mean free paths, and their time profiles are comparatively undistorted by transport processes in the interplanetary medium. Information gained from the observation and analysis of GLEs is clearly pertinent to the field of heliophysics and is also interesting for traditional astrophysics for the challenge it poses to acceleration models ... Read more

Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for Investigations of Tire Degradation

June 5, 2013.

Tires are one of the important parts of modern vehicles. Tires are the only parts of the vehicles that have contactsto the road surface. Thus, the quality of tires directly affects the performance of the traction and maneuvering vehicles, and more importantly the safety of the people on the road. Technology in the design and production of automotive tires has greatly been improved. It is not far from reach to tune the performance of tires to fit the specific needs of different vehicles, such as passenger cars, truck, vans, 4-wheel drive vehicles and buses. ... Read more

Combines finite difference –finite element is not difficult as you may thing

June 25, 2012.

To solve partial differential equation for complicated problem that cannot be solved with integral equation (IE), particularly for those boundary value problems of fluid mechanics & dynamics, thermal analysis and geophysics and many others, researchers solve these equations with approximation methods: the finite difference (FD) method and the finite element (FE) method. Both methods start by discretizing the model domain into many small meshes. These meshes are rectangles for ... Read more

Development of microwave drying technology for swiftlet bird’s nest at low pressure

June 6, 2012.

The nest has been consumed and known as Eastern Caviar. The swiftlet bird’s nest consists of 0.14-1.28% of fat, 25-27% of carbohydrate and 62-63% of protein[1]. The protein of the nest, which is a glycoprotein, possesses precursor substance for boosting immunity and stimulating skin cell growth. It has higher nutritional value than normal protein, can inhibit growth of bacteria, fungi and virus. To make food product from the bird’s nest, it will be soaked in water to clean up contaminated matter, and then the clean and white fiber-like nest is dried up as ... Read more