May 16, 2019.
From the world’s rapid urbanization, people tend to migrate from rural areas (focusing on agricultural economy) to the urban areas (emphasizing on industrial economy) over the last few decades (e.g. see Figures 1 and 2). According to statistical data, the population of large cities around the world has increased considerably. In 2018, the UN stated that 55% of the world's population lives in various metropolitan areas, and this figure will increase to 68% within the next 30 years . Typically, the highly populated urban area often encounters various economic and social problems. ... Read more
January 2, 2019.
Aboriginal people in Southeast Asia have been cultivating rice as staple food for more than 5,000 years since the prehistoric period. The evidence of rice cultivation was found in the excavation of Ban Chiang civilization in Udon Thani Province. Thailand has thousands of native rice varieties  and Thai people have high skill in rice planting. It is not uncommon for Thailand to be in the top three of the rice exporters of the world's rice market. ... Read more
June 25, 2018.
The electricity usage for refrigeration systems is accounted for more than 50 – 60 % of the country’s total electrical energy consumption. Based on 2017 data as shown in Figure 1, the total domestic electricity usage is as high as 185,370 million unit per year. With the cost of electricity production at 2 – 5 baht/unit, the cost of electricity usage for refrigeration systems in Thailand is higher than 200 billion baths per year ... Read more
March 8, 2018.
Sustainable Physics Education Reform program has been started on October 1, 2016 and continued until September 30, 2019. The main goal is to conduct physics education research so that there is a reform in physics teaching and learning in Thailand. The program focuses on conducting basic research studies on physics understanding of students in pre-college up to undergraduate levels. Research findings are used to develop instructional materials for active learning approach in physics suitable for Thai students. Moreover, the program publishes research studies and trains more physics education researchers. Over the past two years, the progresses of this program are as follows. ... Read more
October 16, 2017.
Over the first 11 months of all 36 months, the subprojects 1 and 2 of the Research Project on “Innovative Physics Using Ion/ Plasma for Modified Forage Plants/ Bacteria to Enhance Dairy and Beef Cattle Productivity” under the Research Program in “Innovative Physics for Enhancing Value of Agriculture Products” have been in progress in accordance with the specified operation plans. All of these can be summarized below. ... Read more
September 5, 2016.
With rapid and significant development, progress and profit achieved in nanomaterials and nanotechnology, nanotoxicity has been put in the research agenda and a new subject termed nanotoxicology has emerged. ... Read more
April 17, 2015.
Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are amongst the most advanced electrical energy storage system available today. High energy lithium-ion batteries have improved performance in a wide variety of mobile electronic devices such as cell-phone and laptop computer. However, new fields of ... Read more
January 20, 2015.
The synchrotron x-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) technique was used in conjunction with first-principles calculations to characterize Al-doped ZnO films. Standard characterizations revealed that the amount of carrier concentration and mobility depend on the growth conditions ... Read more
March 12, 2014.
Bone damage is a serious health condition that has a direct impact on the quality of life of sufferers. In recent years, metals and alloys are widely used for restoration of bone damage. However, the degradation of most metals implanted in human body has narrowed the choice of clinically usable metals and alloys to mainly stainless steel, cobalt-chromium and titanium and its alloys. Among all the metallic materials, the austenitic stainless steels type 316L (316L-SS) are the most popular materials because of their relatively low cost, ease of fabrication and reasonable corrosion resistance. However, clinical experience has shown that they are susceptible to localized attack in long-term application in the human body causing the release of metal ions, i.e., iron, chromium, nickel and molybdenum. Metal ions can be accumulated in the tissues surrounding the implant or be transported to distant parts of the body. It has been demonstrated that metallic ions resulting from an in vitro corrosion of austenitic stainless steels cause alteration of the expression of human lymphocyte-surface antigens and inhibit the immune response as assessed by lymphocyte proliferation. ... Read more
January 27, 2014.
In the field of analytical chemistry, one of the most popular and straight forward techniques is the separation analysis. The good example is chromatagraphy, which is the well-known technique conventionally used by chemists and biologists. There is the technique, however, to be used in the separation of chemical analytes benefiting the influence of an external electric field. This technique is called Capillary Electrophoresis (CE). The sub-technique of CE namely Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE) is the focus of our study. Normally, the separation is performed in a 50-100 cm long glass capillary of average internal diameter ranging from 30-100 microns. Therefore, it requires quite high separation voltage and long operation period. On the top of that, the system is larger when it is integrated with the detector, which is usually a light detector (UV absorption or emission). Such a system has to be placed in a laboratory only. Thus, the Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis (MCE) technique, which is the operation of CE on a microfluidic chip, has been proposed. The main advantages of MCE are its portability and high integrability. Low cost and low chemical consumption are also considered in poor countries. ... Read more
December 23, 2013.
In recent years, there is a growing interest in developing silicon oxide films for use in biomedical applications such as bioelectronics, and biomaterials [1-5]. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is widely used to deposit silicon oxide films on polymeric biomaterials because it can adjust the mechanical properties with the deposition parameters . Post-deposition oxygen (O2) plasma was used to adapt wettability of SiOx films because O2 plasma enhanced higher O2-containing functionalities and more drastic morphology change. These would be beneficial to certain biomedicine application potentials such as polymeric cell-culture dishes and biosensors whose cell attachment and proliferation properties could be modified by depositing SiOx thin films. ... Read more
October 22, 2013.
Our research group at the Applied Physics Research Laboratory, Chiang Mai University is actively involving to harvest maximum energy conversion efficiency of solar power into electricity of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For years now, DSSCs are considered to be one of the promising alternatives to the existing silicon based-solar cells due to ease of fabrication and low-cost fabrication . Recently, DSSC-productions have been already commercialized for light generation purpose, but they have relatively low efficiency, in which the performance depends on both current and voltage of DSSCs. In this regard, the DSSC performance can be improved in an effective manner through an increase in photogenerated current and photovoltage by suppressing electron back transport. In this respect, it depends particularly on metal-oxide types to well-defined DSSC photoelectrodes. Due to our knowledge gained through zinc oxide (ZnO) materials [2-3], we are now interested in the efficiency improvement of DSSCs using ZnO as photoelectrode-based layers. ... Read more
September 19, 2013.
Approximately 15 times per 11-year solar cycle, the Sun emits cosmic rays with sufficient energy and intensity to raise radiation levels on Earth’s surface markedly above background levels due to Galactic cosmic rays. These events, termed “ground level enhancements” (GLEs), provide an exceptionally clear picture of particle acceleration on the Sun, first because GLE particles travel near the speed of light and thus enable a precise linkage between the particles and the solar source event, and second because they have large mean free paths, and their time profiles are comparatively undistorted by transport processes in the interplanetary medium. Information gained from the observation and analysis of GLEs is clearly pertinent to the field of heliophysics and is also interesting for traditional astrophysics for the challenge it poses to acceleration models ... Read more
June 5, 2013.
Tires are one of the important parts of modern vehicles. Tires are the only parts of the vehicles that have contactsto the road surface. Thus, the quality of tires directly affects the performance of the traction and maneuvering vehicles, and more importantly the safety of the people on the road. Technology in the design and production of automotive tires has greatly been improved. It is not far from reach to tune the performance of tires to fit the specific needs of different vehicles, such as passenger cars, truck, vans, 4-wheel drive vehicles and buses. ... Read more
June 25, 2012.
To solve partial differential equation for complicated problem that cannot be solved with integral equation (IE), particularly for those boundary value problems of fluid mechanics & dynamics, thermal analysis and geophysics and many others, researchers solve these equations with approximation methods: the finite difference (FD) method and the finite element (FE) method. Both methods start by discretizing the model domain into many small meshes. These meshes are rectangles for ... Read more
June 6, 2012.
The nest has been consumed and known as Eastern Caviar. The swiftlet birds nest consists of 0.14-1.28% of fat, 25-27% of carbohydrate and 62-63% of protein. The protein of the nest, which is a glycoprotein, possesses precursor substance for boosting immunity and stimulating skin cell growth. It has higher nutritional value than normal protein, can inhibit growth of bacteria, fungi and virus. To make food product from the birds nest, it will be soaked in water to clean up contaminated matter, and then the clean and white fiber-like nest is dried up as ... Read more